What is a Ribosome? | Ribosome Structure and Function

What is a Ribosome? | Ribosome Structure and Function


So, what is a Ribosome? | Ribosome structure and Function?

Ribosomes are the protein factories of any cell. They’re responsible for assembling existing proteins into new molecules and modifying existing proteins to make them more efficient at carrying out their functions.

This process is called translation, which is how we get new proteins. This article will start with the Ribosome definition, its properties, and its structure with Function.


What is a Ribosome?


A Ribosome is an intracellular, single membrane-bonded particle comprised of an equal amount of RNA and proteins. They are most commonly known as the protein factory of the cell.


What is the structure of the ribosome?


A ribosome is a tiny machine that reads and translates genetic code into amino acids. The ribosome’s structure consists of two subunits: the small (the 40S) and large (60S) ribosomal subunits. The 80S subunit, visualized as a ring, binds to mRNA to form the initiation complex.

The 80S complex assembles on the 30S subunit and forms the peptidyl transferase center.



Presence of ribosome


Ribosomes are single membrane-bounded organelles. They are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Their structure composition is as follows:

  • They are made of two subunits.
  • These subunits are present in separated from in cytoplasm
  • When they get a message from the messenger RNA to make protein, then they got assemble
  • In prokaryotes, the smaller subunit if os 30S, and the larger subunit is 40 S
  • In the eukaryotic cell, the larger subunit is 60 S, and the smaller is 40 S
  • S stands for svedberg unit of ultracentrifugation.
  • It comprises an equal amount of protein and RNA called ribonucleic protein.


Forms of ribosome


There are two ways in which ribosomes are present inside the cell.

  1. Freely dispersed
  2. Attached with ER


Freely dispersed


When ribosomes are freely dispersed, they are present in the cytoplasm and not attached to any organelle.

Attached with ER


The ribosomes that are attached to ER give them a rough appearance that’s why they are called RER ( rough endoplasmic reticulum )


Formation of ribosome


The ribosome is the part of the cell that makes proteins. It is made up of RNA and protein.

Ribosomes are assembled in the nucleoles of the nucleus. The nucleolus is called the ribosomal factory. They are made in the nucleoles and then transported out of the cells.


Function of ribosomes


  • Ribosomes are called the protein factory of the cell
  • Protein is necessary for all life activities, so ribosome makes the protein with the help of messenger RNA and all other types of RNA.
  • It also involves decoding messenger RNA codes that take up protein synthesis.
  • It links the amino acids together and forms the protein
  • It is the machinery of protein makeup

protein synthesis

Frequently asked questions


What are ribosomes

Ribosomes are the single membrane-bounded organelle found all over the cell.

What is the composition of the ribosome?

The ribosome is made up of two subunits: RNA and protein. The protein component of the ribosome binds to messenger RNA (mRNA) and reads its code using amino acids.


How do ribosomes make protein?


The formation of ribosomes starts with transcription from DNA into mRNA. This process begins with RNA polymerase II attached to promoter DNA. Once this occurs, transcription starts, and RNA polymerase II moves along the DNA with each round of transcription.

Once it has transcribed enough base pairs for one turn of protein synthesis, it stops moving along that segment of DNA and attaches to an mRNA molecule instead. This process continues


Once all genes have been transcribed into mRNA molecules and translated into proteins by ribosomes, they are released from the nucleus and travel through cytoplasmic space.


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